...Continued from page 1

Now that I think of it, I what I did was risky. The paper doesn't seem to want to allow for this. No, migrants are supposed to have a plan that works right the first time. Nowhere does it say, 'try it,' but have a fall–back plan.

I have known people who moved to some sunny place down south only to find they didn't know anybodyphoto: square vert galant there, and didn't think they were ever going to fit in. It might have been because they didn't cleanly sever their ties to Paris. The paper suggests this might not be necessary because TGV trains are so rapid.

City centre park in August.

Another spur to moving out of urban areas to start a new life, is to start a new life. This involves part two of the 'plan,' which is supposed to guarantee some way of making a living where there might not be a lot of employers crying out for help. You are not supposed to be casual about this. A solid 'B'–plan is necessary.

But with a lot of France being nearly deserted there is no lack of old places to fix–up and turn into B&Bs, or rural vacation apartments or dog and pony farms. One quote grips me – "It's been a lot harder than we imagined." Probably, I think, an understatement.

Operation Libération DVD

The city announced some time ago that it had commissioned a DVD about the Liberation in 1944, with the intention of distributing it to schools in September. But late last week Le Parisien announced that its Sunday edition would offer the same disc to the first 200,000 who bought the paper.

This caused me to get myself to my boulangerie a bit earlier than usual yesterday to get my daily loaf and Sunday's paper, along with the DVD. It's a little unfair because I have no DVD player.

Today the paper says that the operation was a huge success. By noon many points of sale put up signs saying copies of the paper were available, but all of the DVDs were gone. Other than knowing that 200,000 copies of the DVD were snatched up, the paper won't know its Sunday circulation figures until later in the week.

This event also marked the 60th anniversary of Le Parisien, which first appeared on the streets of Paris on Tuesday, 22. August 1944. Its name then was 'Le Parisien Libéré.' As today, its headline wasn't brilliant, with 'La victoire de Paris est en marche!' running across eight columns.

Other newspapers were distributed in Paris as early as 1942. There was 'Résistance' with a circulation at times reaching 100,000 copies, and later, 'L'Avenir' in Versailles.

A federation of clandestine papers was formed in 1943 and it decided that only underground papers that had circulatedphoto: liberation, ffi ambulance under the occupation could be published after the liberation. 'L'Avenir' was the entry permit for 'Le Parisien Libéré.' In all, a thousand different titles were printed during the occupation and some of them had print runs of a half million copies.

Original FFI–police ambulance.

Luckily, according to Le Parisien, only about 20 titles sought authorization to continue publication after the liberation. The paper says everything was planned to the tiniest detail in advance, from having writers who were not compromised by collaboration, to having an organized distribution.

But the key person was Emilien Amaury, and his 'group of the Rue de Lille.' They had the paper necessary to run through the presses. The original management quickly ceded control, and Amaury became the 'patron.' His son, Philippe Amaury, runs Le Parisien today and yesterday was the paper's 60th birthday.

This sketchy history, provided by Le Parisien, omits to mention how or from where Emilien Amaury and his boys in the 'Rue de Lille' managed to lay their hands on huge rolls of newsprint during the occupation or at the time of the liberation. It's not the kind of thing you can easily hide in an overcoat pocket.

Since the origin is not mentioned, I guess the newsprint must have been 'borrowed' from the stocks of collaborating papers. Once the liberation was in full swing they couldn't have had much further use for it.

1944 Poll

Between Monday, 28. August and Saturday, 2. September 1944 the Institut Français d'Opinion Publique carried out a poll of 1000 Paris residents. The city was barely liberated, the barricades were being dismantled, much of France was still occupied and WWII was going on hot and strong.

Parisians were asked if they thought the Allied command had permitted General Leclerc's 2nd Armored Division to enter Paris first intentionally, and 92 percent thought 'yes.' The reason, 73.9 percent of Parisians thought, was courtesy.

Only 61.9 percent had the opinion that the FFI played an important rôle in the liberation of the city. Charles de Gaulle led a parade through Paris on Saturday, 26. August and 55.6 percent of those polled said they watched it and 44.4 percent stayed away.

About the sporadic shooting that continued, 85.8 percent blamed it on men and women in the Nazi forces. Thephoto: dvd, liberation, parisien, vdep French militia allied to the occupiers were thought to be responsible by 68.2 percent, other 'French' were credited by 31.8 percent, and 'fous' were named by 12.9 percent.

The Ville de Paris DVD distributed by Le Parisien.

When asked to name the country that contributed the most to Germany's defeat, 61 percent named the USSR, with the United States trailing at 29.3 percent. The 'three Allies' got 11.5 percent and 3.5 percent thought Britain contributed most, slightly more than 3.1 percent for 'others.'

But when asked to name the country that would most help France to get back on its feet after the war, 69 percent cited the United States, followed by 13.8 percent mentioning Britain and 6.2 percent naming the USSR.

The poll began on the third full day of the liberation, after a military occupation that tasted two months more than four years. Thousands had been killed and wounded during the insurrection and liberation, food was in short supply and there were snipers around. News had been tightly controlled during the occupation, despite the clandestine presses. The IFOP poll was daring, and conducted under difficult conditions. Its results reflect those dangerous times.

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